All about Usability and Accessibility of Model Window in Web Design


Model window is the most essential element of the web page in modern days, as it provides extra real estate on the screen and serving contextual content ultimately. Despite its usefulness, we never think of its user experiences, usability, and accessibility for instance, through keyboard keys, instead of mouse.


For web and mobile designers, popup, nag screen, interstitial, etc. are devil creations and enemies of better user experiences, against the user friendly and useful model windows, created with great care. In fact, model windows offer unprecedented advantages for developers like delivering contextual info, notifications, actions in contexts of current screen, and most importantly some extra space for content or short forms to fill up quickly.

Ignorance of Model Windows

Despite their essential and usefulness, developers often ignore them during designing and programming, particularly at the usability, accessibility, and user experiences point of views in modern responsive web designing. For instance, if any user is favoring navigation of your website through keyboard instead of pointing device like mouse, she will get frustrations when a model windows popup immediately in contexts of some actions or anyway.

Yes, there are frustrations because dealing with model windows always need mouse pointer to take some actions on button or activate the input fields on the model windows. If user wants to ignore it and close it, she again has to use mouse pointer to click the ‘X’ close button on the model windows anywhere.

Of course, there are alternatives to use keyboard shortcuts like tab-key or alter-tab keys, but they are not universal and applicable in all OS or versions of OS. If, user is reaching on the model windows there is no guarantee that Esc key shortcut will work to close the model windows.

Need Attentions

In short, we can say that we need some programming hacks to make model windows accessible and usable in all sorts of use cases of website, be it on desktop or on the handheld devices. Let’s see how we can improve the semantics of the markup of model windows in this post.

Improvements in Semantic

Generally, when we code for model windows, we give it an id in div tags and state a hovering action to close it. Thus, this simple div element of model window has nothing in sense of semantic meaning when any user wishes to use it or closes it through keyboard or screen reader actions.

In order to understand this, if we take one code example of a model window, we can see how improvement in coding is possible.

<div id="modal_overlay">
<div id="modal_close" onClick="modalClose()">

Now in this code, if we correct the semantic of the above code by writing markup for the button instead of simple div element as well as adding an AIRA label for screen reader.

<div id="modal_overlay">
<button type="button" class="btn-close" id="modal_close" aria-label="close">

This way we address our two targeted issues: keyboard action through tab key and focused state through AIRA label for screen readers. As button can be tabbed and this action falls in convention on the web, our both purposes, usability and accessibility through keyboard have solved.

If you want to take user experiences at the next level, some more efforts through CSS and JavaScript are essential. Let’s check them one-by-one in code examples.

Adding focus states

We grab attention of users through some effects like shadow towards the button so they can know that it is active element and will respond through keyboard actions too. We can do this way:

:focus {
box-shadow: 0 0 3px rgba(0,0,0,.75);

Generally, when model window appears, its background freezes and user begins focusing on the model window. However, this phenomenon never happens automatically and you have to first save the last active element on the screen through coding and in next step, you need to code to shift the focus of user on the model window. Thus, you have to add code for both action through following ways.

Save the Background

You can save background element by adding variable and executing it through function.

var lastFocus;
function modalShow () {
lastFocus = document.activeElement;
function modalClose () {
lastFocus.focus(); // place focus on the saved element

Shift the Focus

You can do this by giving that element an id and set attributes for keyboard action:

var modal = document.getElementById('your-modal-id-here');
function modalShow () {
modal.setAttribute('tabindex', '0');

Closing Model Window

We can do this simply by using Escape key as it used as standard convention in digital world.

function modalClose ( e ) {
if ( !e.keyCode || e.keyCode === 27 ) {
// code to close modal goes here
document.addEventListener('keydown', modalClose);

There are more usability steps, but expert and dedicated web developers at Lujayn, always using those advance steps in certain contexts and in favor of its patrons.


Check Performance Metrics across Form Factors In Google Analytics

Enabling Form Factors in Universal GA
Enabling Form Factors in Universal GA


With the evaluation of responsive web designing, we need to advance our analytics too. We have techniques and tools to know the content breakpoints, but we are devoid of the form-factors based breakpoints. Let’s have a try to include them in our GA.


When we design for responsive website, we not design for devices, but for the different form factors means we have to address various form factors by deciding their performance metrics. This is very true in case of UX designing because we want to accelerate and optimize the user experiences for a particular device or set of devices.

Form Factors

Unfortunately, we can’t address each device individually or set of devices one-by-one due to big fragmentation issues on hardware and OS fronts, whether it is iOS and iOS devices or Android OS or Android devices. However, we can address common form factors of the every device and can categorizing them according to their form factors. We can categorize form factors by identifying device experiences in following ways:

  • Through usage or posture
  • Through input methods
  • Through output or screen

These form factors enable us to use Google Analytics and other web and mobile analytics in our responsive designing and give perfect clues to iterate design in ongoing projects or through regular updates.

Form Factors in GA

There are WURFL.js used in the GA to measure its given form factors and we have to include it in to the source code of our responsive websites. Once we introduce WURFL.js into the page code, it creates a global object that you can access through JavaScript in GA and measure various form factors given by it like…

  • App
  • Smartphone
  • Tablet
  • Feature Phone
  • Other Mobiles
  • Desktop
  • Smart TV
  • Robot
  • Other Non-Mobile Devices including wearable

Thus, your Universal GA code would be…

/* Define the custom dimensions */

ga('send', 'pageview', {

'dimension1': WURFL.complete_device_name,

'dimension2': WURFL.form_factor,

'dimension3': WURFL.is_mobile


Once you write or re-write GA code in website template you have to go to GA account where you have to define custom dimensions in admin panel

Admin>Custom Definitions>Custom Dimensions

Enabling Form Factors in Universal GA

Now, Google server will collect the data and you need to analyze them through your GA account in your browser so you have to make some customization of your dashboard. Now, click on

Audience>Custom>Custom Variables

For Universal GA, your custom dimensions will available along with the other standard dimensions

By enabling form factor dimensions, we can measure bounce rate and pages per visit to get big picture of their behavior on the various devices. Thus, we can draw fine conclusions in our responsive web designing projects.

Creating Widgets

GA offers a best feature to get alerts when website performance changes for custom dimensions and that in form of Widgets on Dashboard. At first place we will create Pie-Chart widget to analyze how much your responsive website is being used by different form factors.

On Dashboard, click

Add Widget>Pie>Sessions>form factor>Custom Dimension

Here you will group sessions by the form factor variables one-by-one.

Secondly, create widgets for Visits and Bounce rate same the way. Thus, you will have big picture of changes in form factors that are taking place when you make any change in your website design or programming. Of course, you have to add some filters to standard metrics in these widgets and you can do is simply selecting timeline diagram and filter the data flow with your custom variables.

If you create one widget for each of your form factor, you need to watch, you will have good ideas for your responsive website design.

Lujayn has expert responsive web designers who have perfect knowledge of SEO and various SEO tools to use in their advance designing processes.

Some Technical Aspects that Affects Search Engine Crawling


The success of SEO is greatly depending on how search engines look and feel your website. Therefore, technologies and technical aspects of the website determine the overall success at the end of the day.


It was a time when e-commerce and other websites were made up using Flash like animation technologies. At present, we have innumerable technologies at hand and they are producing simple standstill HTML websites to highly interactive and dynamic web portals using PHP like open source technologies.

Earlier, we were mainly focusing on the audience who accessed front-end side of the websites through browsers, giving cloying graphics and animations using appropriate technologies. Gradually, search engines added one more dimension in the web development and it was SEO friendly website development. Now, businesses are looking for ranking on SERP along with tempting the human visitors on the website.

Website Access at Technical Point of View

Our modern websites have two types of visitors, one is human and another is search engine. Humans have eyes to see and brain to read, feel, sense, and analyze the website content. Whereas crawlers have algorithm to read the source of the website on the server, means bots read backend only.

At front-end, web developers take care of user experiences through myriads of factors in designing as well as in programming. For instance,

  • Cloying UI design with smart UI elements
  • Rapid and dynamic interaction programming
  • Comprehensive information architecture or navigation schemes
  • Content architecture or layout
  • Content on images
  • Multimedia content including images, audio, video, animations, and so on
  • Integration of various 3rd party solutions and extension for advance as well as personalized functionality

These are some considerations for web developers at front-end.

Against these, at back-end we need to take care of all technical aspects that allow all sorts of search engines to crawl the web pages in source code. For instance, various technologies of web design such as

  • HTML
  • CSS
  • JavaScript like various scripts
  • Cookies
  • Robot Tags
  • Programming language
  • IP addresses
  • Hosting
  • Cloud

These all deliberately affects the crawling of the web pages for websites and web application whether they are on traditional servers or on the cloud and displaying in the browsers on desktops or smart handheld devices.

Obstacles for Search Engines

As described above, search engines have to access backend through source code and source code reside on the web server or cloud and it is made up of various components including the front-end elements along with technologies in programming documents.

Search Engine Crawling Issue
Search Engine Crawling Issue

Location Factors

Hosting, cloud, and IP addresses are some of the location indicating and permission granting factors. Thus, if you don’t have SEO friendly hosting solutions, how crawlers will access the server and source code easily? If the region of host or cloud is inaccessible for the search engine, you have meager chances of indexing regularly.

Flash, Images, PDF, Animations like Banned Technologies

We know Google like advanced search engines can crawl Flash, Images, PDF at some extent only while rest of other search engines are of primitive type and have banned such content for their visits.

CSS, JavaScript, Cookies like External Factors

We know that CSS and cookies like files are residing at the external locations in the hosting environment and are not included in the main source file like HTML. Similarly, JavaScript is tough to crawl rapidly even for the Google. If your navigation is based on the CSS and your important website info is collected in the cookies, your dream for indexing will abolish soon.

Robot Tags

If you don’t have robot tags or your robot tags are with some serious errors like ‘noindex’ or ‘nofollow’ tags, how poor crawlers dare to proceed further in your web page source code?

In sum, if your design is good, but your source code is not search engine friendly you will lose the ranking battle at long run. Fortunately, Lujayn has expert technical web designing team, familiar with such issues and capable to manage them during the web development process.

Let Us Comprehend CUBI—A User Experience Model Part 5

Interaction in CUBI ModelPreviously we have explored the components of CUBI model for UX designers for web and mobile software products. In second part, we have grasped the content layers’ functionality. In third part, it were user goals while in fourth part, we had some knowledge about business goals. Now in this post, we will look finally at the fourth component of the CUBI model and its interaction. However, user interaction designing is crucial in modern high-end web and mobile landscape because only interactions make product live and exert the best user experiences in our highly intricate software designing projects.

Just like other components, user interactions has four layers to consider when incorporating it in the UX designs. Those layers are patterns, systems, devices, and humans. Let’s see how they act in the UX designing.

Interactions with Patterns

We know very well that UI design consists of various UI elements and most of them are the parts of graphics or layout designs. Therefore, it is natural that design patterns have greater impacts on the interactions of users hence on the UX designs. Apart from buttons, there are headers, menus, maps, calendars, video, audio, images, etc. which are taking parts in various interactions and responsible for user experiences at the end.

Interactions with Systems

Web and mobile applications are creating their own system and running on the various operating systems as well as devices using its hardware, software, and custom resources at a capacity. For instance, any software on web and mobiles may have navigation system, workflows, screen flows, feedback giving and receiving systems, notification systems to interact with internal and external components. These all are mean to help end-users to go ahead to achieve their intended goals with our products.

There is nature of the system such as static or dynamic may decide the interaction designing. At other hand, your software system will define the CMS, e-commerce, and other system software integration with a set of capabilities and limitations.

Interactions with Devices

We are living in fragmentation era in terms of computing devices. Therefore, it is mandatory to beat challenges of multi-screen designing for better UX in all mobile and web software products. Our client/targeted devices may have fragmentation issues with screen size at first place, form factors like smartphones, tablets, desktops, laptops, kiosks, terminals, wearable devices, appliances, and many others at second place.

The biggest challenge for UX designers with devices is various gestures to interact with them like pointing devices/mouse, touch gestures with fingers, thumbs, and other body parts, body gestures with just movements, accelerometer like hardware gestures, geo-locations, and use of camera are some instances to consider during UX designing and interaction designs in particular.


Interactions with Humans

After all, we are designing UX for our end-users, and in most the cases, they are human beings. Therefore, human interactions with the product designing like formal, informal ways of interactions, sometimes personal or interpersonal or social interactions define the UX design of the software products at detail level.


In simple words, we can say that a set of various patterns provided in a system is responsible for UX and such system running on various devices trigger the human interactions with the product. If you want to get some clue of successful UX designs using CUBI model, you have to explore our portfolio and consult our designers for web and mobiles.



Author Bio:

Shoaib Marfatiya is an eminent writer in web development industry and its verticals. He has contributed a lot by throwing light on very intricate issues of web and mobile development community.

Let Us Comprehend CUBI—A User Experience Model Part 2

Content Layer in CUBI Model for UXWe have realized the pains of the UX designer due to lack of suitable model or framework to work on in the previous part 1. Moreover, we have seen that why we need CUBI model and what its ultimate purposes or benefits to the modern designers for the better UX? According to our CUBI model content is one of the core parts among the four components.

Content Layer

During the designing process for UX when we are going to incorporate content in the project do several activities and if we are going to depict those activities in the layer forms, we can place content types next to the core of content presentation. Then next layers would be content models, content treatments, content methods, and content architecture. Let’s check them one-by-one in this series.

Types of Content

Initially content has only one or two forms like texts and images in early web era. Today the types of content has all multimedia formats optimized for the web such as audio, video, graphics, data tables and data presentations/chart/graphs, and documents of many unimaginative formats. The more interesting thing is that these variations in content types are not stick with some standalone formats, but there are enough opportunities to combine available formats in various combination creatively and contextually to solve our problems of designing and UX.

For instance, infographics have super combinations of text and images where designers have free reigns to add data visualization techniques and illustration to go on storytelling styles. Pinterest like social media is solely based on such modern variants of the content types and their combinations.

Models of Content

As we have seen above that various combination of content are in use and if we arrange them logically, they become content models. In above example infographics is a sort of model. Similarly, recipe in cooking app or alike apps is a model consisting of different content including texts as instructions, ingredients as data, images of food or ingredients or food, and video describing the process are various content types in it.

Effects on Content

We treat content very different ways from screen to screen or apps such as we apply visual styles like 2D/3D effects on the images/photos to bring good aesthetics. Texts may have unique personality through various text styles. Graphics may have opportunities to reflect brands or personality through theme creation. Thus, UX designers have to learn and follow various content treatments feasible under the umbrella of contemporary styling practices or content treatments.

Methodology of Content

We can make content more interesting hence engaging through various presentation methods of content such as storytelling, metaphors, analogy, scenario creation, symbolism, and many other creative ways.

Architecture of Content

We know if all content types, models, methods, and effects are not in an organized manner or follow a definite structure, we can’t get good UX or solve the website’s problems/client’s problems. Therefore, information architecture or content architecture has great places in the web or mobile designing.

If you like to see the best examples of the roles of content in UX, please check the portfolio of Lujayn carefully.

Author Bio:

Shoaib Marfatiya is an eminent writer in web development industry and its verticals. He has contributed a lot by throwing light on very intricate issues of web and mobile development community.

Working with and Building Modal Windows in Web Design Part 1


Modal windows are offering extra spaces on the screen without intimidating user experiences if designed smartly. No doubt, making its semantic is the need of moment. Therefore, let’s check the best practices and trends for working with modal windows in your web design project.


In web design whether for static or responsive websites, you need to take care of readability, usability, accessibility, and functionality during entire designing and programming process. In due course, organization of information architecture along with design layout is crucial and demanding a bit experiences as well as expertise.

At present, most of the websites are business oriented and highly relying on online identity to accomplish their critical tasks or processes of the business. Therefore, intricacy in design and functionality is natural. Majority of clients and their web developers are screen real estate hungry. They constantly try to include maximum info in minimum space. Thus, their trade-off with layout blocks and responsive design become more complex and force them to find out innovative ideas to justify their content needs.

Technically, we have innumerable GUI elements and structures to organize our ever-increasing content needs. For instance, jQuery-based sliders, Ajax based tabs, and simple pop-ups or modal windows through programming. Among these, modal windows have certain advantages to do off-canvas designing for web and mobile platforms.

Advantages of Modal Windows

Let me list those advantages in brief just to mention:

  • Modal windows are quite smaller UI element in most of the cases so save space
  • It is floating over the existing page so you need not to create special space for them in your layout, just give links or CTA UI element to pop it up
  • It never requires loading of entire page and simulate the Ajax like functionality so end-users like them so you can consider the modal window as improved usability step in your web designing
  • You can move modal window simply by dragging it on the existing page so offer great convenience for users
  • As modal windows are part of off-canvas design, you can add them in multiple occasions and in as many as you need, of course, don’t exceed here too

Contextual Usage of Modal Windows

No doubt, modal windows are excellent structural UI elements, but they are not applicable on all sorts of content or media so be careful while incorporating in your UI designs. Here I am going to listing and depicting where and when modal windows elements should use and not.

For Lightbox

In these days, our images and videos are of large to extra-large size. Therefore, incorporating them on live web page or UI prove costly and strenuous for layout designers. If we use lightbox for images and videos we don’t have to load or reload web page frequently and can reduce the loading burden until lightbox is not opened. You can use thumbnails of images/videos at linking UI element instead of mere text link or simple button. Thus, you can give ideas of the content before clicking it.

Moreover, you have many options to highlight your content of lightbox in modal window design. For instance, you can blur the background of the rest of screen against the lightbox so your visitors/users can easily see the image details or watch video without distractions. Workings with background of modal windows are easy in styling so you can show your creativity freely.

Another usage of lightbox is converting modal windows into the image galleries. Here you can use auto-sliding or manual next-previous buttons to the lightbox to give best user experiences.

There is much other usage of modal windows in web or mobile UI designing, but we will check them in the next part of this series.


Author Bio:

Shoaib Marfatiya is an eminent writer in web development industry and its verticals. He has contributed a lot by throwing lights on very intricate issues of web and mobile development community.


Secure Positive ROI by Developing Appropriate CTMS Part 2

Maintaining patient registry through spreadsheet is old practice and today we have CTMS with modern technologies that allows us to feed patient data instantly using mobile devices quickly and accurately using various features and functionality of latest CTMS programming practices


As I have promised in Part 1 that we will check how we can streamline the workflow during the process of clinical trials using our ultramodern CTMS development technologies and out-of-box strategies for your CTMS programming project.


Extensive Help to Various Medical Fields

Today we are living in mobile era where cloud-computing technologies have eased our highly intricate and interactive tasks in all fields including medical and its allied industries or fields. For instance, our modern eClinical system or CTMS (Clinical Trial Management System) is capable to support extensive operations at independent research sites, SMOs, and site networks in order to help academic medical centers, CTSAs, various research hospitals including private and government run bodies as well as chronic disease centers including cancer.


No Spreadsheets At All

In olden days, we were solely rely on spreadsheets in our age old PCs and facing ample distractions to feed data quickly and accurately. Now, with tablets and smartphones we need not to go to computer room or office space located in our premises. Instead, we are capable to feed data spontaneously near the bed of patients or from the operation theater in some instances. Highly user-friendly UIs of tablets and smartphone or laptop and even of desktop have removed the needs of spreadsheets at all and you have suggestive and quickly filled input boxes that allow you to feed securely and accurately your patient registry data or clinical trials data by various level of permissions.


Secure and Qualitative Data

You don’t have any fear of loss of data or inconsistency of data as all data go directly to the web services or cloud computing services in real-time as well as stored in offline mode and updated later on. Different user permission level and comment entering tricks make data more reliable and valid at technical point of view. If we want to see the doctors’ comments on that data feed, we can check them in real-time, and get instant feedback on those data. This exercise not only reduce the errors in data and hence research, but also eliminate the fears of fraudulent practices and entry of wrong professionals in our filed.


Easy Schedule and Tracking of Subject Visit

In clinical research or patient registry programs, we have to spend considerable time to fix the next visits of our patients and push our imaginations to point down the needs and sketching the possible scenario on those future visits. If our CTMS has perfect calendar and UI that prompts various scenarios in advance by coordinating various data from various centers and from different professionals we can accurately fix the schedule of next visits as well as our trained staff can follow the schedule and remaindering relevant patients beforehand and before the appointment time.


Concluding Remark for the Part 2

This real-time updates of schedule not only ease the work of doctors, nurses, office staff, but also help researchers to set their own timetable accordingly and keep things or instruments ready for those fixed visits in our patient registry. In short, these sorts of CTMS solutions help us to get:

  • Automatic calendar with calculation abilities to schedule visits of the subjects of our research in clinical trials or in patient registry maintenance program
  • A central repository in order to maintain our protocols, patients/subjects, and data of visits in past as well as in future
  • Provide information to the doctors, staff, and patients themselves regarding to their previous visits and future visits and its schedules
  • Enable us to compute financial calculations regarding to the patient registry software or disease registry or device trials programs for labs, institutions, and pharmaceutical companies



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